### NASA Exercise: Survival on the Moon

ACTIVITY

Your Ranking NASA Ranking

_______ Box of matches _______

_______ Food concentrate _______

_______ 50 feet of nylon rope _______

_______ Parachute silk _______

_______ Portable heating unit _______

_______ Two .45 caliber pistols _______

_______ One case of dehydrated milk _______

_______ Two 100 lb. tanks of oxygen _______

_______ Stellar map _______

_______ Self-inflating life raft _______

_______ Magnetic compass _______

_______ 20 liters of water _______

_______ Signal flares _______

_______ First aid kit, including injection needle _______

_______ Solar-powered FM receiver-transmitter _______

For each item, mark the number of points that your score differs from the

NASA ranking, then add up all the points. Disregard plus or minus

differences. The lower the total, the better your score.

0 - 25 excellent

26 - 32 good

33 - 45 average

46 - 55 fair

56 - 70 poor -- suggests use of Earth-bound logic

71 - 112 very poor – you’re one of the casualties of the space program!

... published in the July 1999 issue of the NightTimes

**Scenario:**

You are a member of a space crew originally scheduled to rendezvous with a

mother ship on the lighted surface of the moon. However, due to mechanical

difficulties, your ship was forced to land at a spot some 200 miles from the

rendezvous point. During reentry and landing, much of the equipment aboard

was damaged and, since survival depends on reaching the mother ship, the

most critical items available must be chosen for the 200-mile trip. Below are

listed the 15 items left intact and undamaged after landing. Your task is to

rank order them in terms of their importance for your crew in allowing them

to reach the rendezvous point. Place the number 1 by the most important item,

the number 2 by the second most important, and so on through number 15 for

the least important.

_______ Box of matches _______

_______ Food concentrate _______

_______ 50 feet of nylon rope _______

_______ Parachute silk _______

_______ Portable heating unit _______

_______ Two .45 caliber pistols _______

_______ One case of dehydrated milk _______

_______ Two 100 lb. tanks of oxygen _______

_______ Stellar map _______

_______ Self-inflating life raft _______

_______ Magnetic compass _______

_______ 20 liters of water _______

_______ Signal flares _______

_______ First aid kit, including injection needle _______

_______ Solar-powered FM receiver-transmitter _______

**Scoring**:For each item, mark the number of points that your score differs from the

NASA ranking, then add up all the points. Disregard plus or minus

differences. The lower the total, the better your score.

0 - 25 excellent

26 - 32 good

33 - 45 average

46 - 55 fair

56 - 70 poor -- suggests use of Earth-bound logic

71 - 112 very poor – you’re one of the casualties of the space program!

... published in the July 1999 issue of the NightTimes

### POLYNOMIALS

# Polynomials

A polynomial looks like this:

example of a polynomial this one has 3 terms |

**Polynomial**comes from

*poly-*(meaning "many") and

*-nomial*(in this case meaning "term") ... so it says "many terms"

A polynomial can have:

constants (like 3, -20, or ½) |

variables (like and x)y |

exponents (like the 2 in y^{2}), but only 0, 1, 2, 3, ... etc are allowed |

**addition, subtraction, multiplication and division**...

... except ...

... not division by a variable (so something like 2/x is right out) |

A polynomial can have constants, variables and exponents,

but never division by a variable.

but never division by a variable.

## Polynomial or Not?

**are**

**polynomials:**

**3x****x - 2****-6y**^{2}- (^{7}/_{9})x**3xyz + 3xy**^{2}z - 0,1xz - 200y + 0,5**512v**+^{5}**99w**^{5}**5**

**one term is allowed**, and it can even be just a constant!)

And these are

**not**polynomials

**3xy**is not, because the exponent is "-2" (exponents can only be 0,1,2,...)^{-2}**2/(x+2)**is not, because dividing by a variable is not allowed**1/x**is not either**√x**is not, because the exponent is "½"

**But**these

**are**allowed:

**x/2****is allowed**, because you can divide by a constant- also
**3x/8**for the same reason **√2**is allowed, because it is a constant (= 1,4142...etc)

## Monomial, Binomial, Trinomial

There are special names for polynomials with 1, 2 or 3 terms:How do you remember the names? Think cycles! |

*There is also quadrinomial (4 terms) and quintinomial (5 terms),*

but those names are not often used.

but those names are not often used.

## Can Have Lots and Lots of Terms

Polynomials can have as many terms as needed,**but not an infinite number of terms**.

## Variables

Polynomials can have no variable at all
Example: 21 is a polynomial. It has just one term, which is a constant.

Or one variable
Example: x

Or two or more variables^{4}-2x^{2}+x has three terms, but only one variable (x)
Example: xy

^{4}-5x^{2}z has two terms, and three variables (x, y and z)## What is Special About Polynomials?

Because of the strict definition, polynomials are**easy to work with**.

For example we know that:

- If you add polynomials you get a polynomial
- If you multiply polynomials you get a polynomial

## Degree

The**degree**of a polynomial with only one variable is the

**largest exponent**of that variable.

### Example:

The Degree is 3 (the largest exponent of x) |

## Standard Form

The Standard Form for writing a polynomial is to put the terms with the highest degree first.###
Example: Put this in Standard Form: 3**x**^{2} - 7 + 4**x**^{3} + **x**^{6}

The highest degree is 6, so that goes first, then 3, 2 and then the constant last:^{2}

^{3}

^{6}

**x**+ 4

^{6}**x**+ 3

^{3}**x**- 7

^{2}
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